Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (Sars CoV 2), the virus behind the COVID-19, spread worldwide. The outbreak was caused due to the specialised protein presence, SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein which has the potential to penetrate the host body and cause the deadly infection of COVID-19.
The SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein or S protein has the major aim to initiate the infection once penetration within the host; the spike-shaped protrusions is the key to it. They have two major subunits as N-terminal S1 subunit: one as globular head of S protein, C-terminal S2: the stalk of protein rooted in the envelope.
SARS-COV-2 proteins, causing viral infections and pathogenesis. With the S1 and S2 having certain functions, the S1 recognises the hosts and binds to them, which causes conformational changes, whereas S2 facilitates fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane.
- Receptor binding.
As the SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein binds with the host cell recognises the receptor ACE2, S1 being responsible for the binding. ACE2, a homolog of ACE, is the receptor that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. ACE2 is the receptor found in SARS-CoV.
The ACE2 is distributed all over the lung, heart, intestine, kidney, and alveolar cells. With the S1 protein binding, the ACE2 promotes the production of endosomes that initiates the fusion activity that occurs under low pH.
- Viral fusion.
The fusion process is taken by the S proteins in SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein, with the fusion of the viral membrane and the cell membrane. It results in releasing the viral genome into the host and causes the cleavage of SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein into S1 and S2 with the fusion.
The S protein of SARS-COV-2 and SARS-COV is similar, the host proteases are vital to promoting the cleavage of both variants.
- Vaccines based on the SARS-CoV S protein
The S protein role has the potential role of receptor binding and membrane fusion shows vaccine based on SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein, S protein. The vaccine has the potential to induce antibodies that can block the binding with the virus and detect the fusion, also attempt to neutralise the viral infection.
With the S protein being the one with the main antigen component, the human immune responses are targeted with precision. Hence, it is a considerable component of the vaccine and antiviral development.
- Vaccines based on the full-length S protein.
The reported vaccine until now have been of the full length S protein of SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein. The DNA vaccine encoding the strain, introduces protective immunity with both T cells and neutralisation of antibody responses.
The full length S protein have the ability to induce the responses against the infectious SARS-COV and have efficacy with the protein.
- Vaccines based on the RBD.
The major antigens playing as determinants is the major catch of SARS-COV S proteins. With the recombinant RBD or rRBD antigen has the potential to neutralise the antibodies with the infection. The discovery of rRBD has got the SARS-COV-2 Spike Protein, gives the results with induction CD8+ T cell responses.
The approach towards vaccine has been providing a successful outcome, and the evaluation has set out efficiency and efficacy towards the safety.
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