ATLANTA—A new common flu vaccine protects against influenza B viruses, featuring wide defense versus unique strains and improved immune protection, according to a new analyze by researchers in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University.
The double-layered protein nanoparticle vaccine, which is produced with a stabilized portion of the influenza virus (the hemagglutinin (HA) stalk), induced broadly reactive immune responses and conferred sturdy and sustained cross-immune protection against influenza B virus strains of both equally lineages. The results are revealed in the journal Biomaterials.
Influenza epidemics pose a key risk to general public health, and type B influenza has coincided with various intense flu outbreaks. About 1-fourth of clinical infection situations are induced by influenza B viruses each year. Influenza B viruses are sometimes the dominant circulating strains for the duration of influenza seasons, these as the 2019-20 U.S. flu period when influenza B prompted extra than 50 percent of the bacterial infections.
Influenza B has two lineages that are genetically distinctive and result in unique immune responses. Seasonal flu vaccines are developed with one particular or each lineages of influenza B viruses, but they are confined by the capacity of circulating strains to escape the immune method or vaccination. These vaccines are normally ineffective for the reason that the variable part of the influenza virus (the HA head) evolves. As a final result, seasonal influenza vaccines need to be reformulated and current frequently. To defeat these limits, a universal influenza vaccine that contains conserved parts of the virus and providing substantial broad cross-safety in opposition to assorted virus strains is urgently needed.
“In this examine, we produced structure-stabilized HA stalk antigens from influenza B and fabricated double-layered protein nanoparticles as universal influenza B vaccine candidates,” reported Dr. Baozhong Wang, senior author of the study and Distinguished College Professor in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia Point out University. “We located that layered protein nanoparticles incorporated with framework-stabilized frequent antigens have possible as a common influenza vaccine with improved immune protective potency and breadth.”
The nanoparticle vaccine was tested in mobile tradition and in mice. Scientific tests in cell tradition uncovered the protein nanoparticles were proficiently taken up to activate dendritic cells, which are essential for inducing protecting immune responses from pathogens. The vaccine was found to be safe and sound, biocompatible, biodegradable and hugely immunogenic in animals.
“Our up coming purpose is to combine the influenza A nanoparticles from our past study with the influenza B nanoparticles we have fabricated and tested here to develop a multivalent universal influenza nanoparticle vaccine from both of those influenza A and B,” Wang reported.
Co-authors of the examine incorporate Yufeng Music (1st writer), Wandi Zhu, Ye Wang, Lei Deng, Yao Ma, Chunhong Dong, Gilbert X. Gonzalez, Joo Kim, Lai Wei, Sang-Moo Kang and Bao-Zhong Wang of the Heart for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia Condition. Deng is also affiliated with Hunan College in Changsha, China.
The research is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Illnesses (NIAID) of the Countrywide Institutes of Health (NIH).
To read the review, visit https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2022.121664.
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Layered protein nanoparticles containing influenza B HA stalk induced sustained cross-safety towards viruses spanning both viral lineages
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